Laura S. Kupke,1,2 Stephanie Arndt,2,* Simon Lenzer,1,2 Sophia Metz,1 Petra Unger,2 Julia L. Zimmermann,3 Anja-Katrin Bosserhoff,4 Michael Gruber,1 and Sigrid Karrer2


1Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospital Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany;
2Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany;
3Terraplasma Medical GmbH, 85748 Garching, Germany;
4Emil-Fischer-Center, Institute of Biochemistry, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), 91054 Erlangen, Germany;




Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) reduces bacteria and interacts with tissues and cells, thus improving wound healing. The CAP-related induction of neutrophils was recently described in stained sections of wound tissue in mice. Consequently, this study aimed to examine the functionality of human polymorphonuclear cells (PMN)/granulocytes through either a plasma-treated solution (PTS) or the direct CAP treatment with different plasma modes and treatment durations. PTS analysis yielded mode-dependent differences in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) after CAP treatment. Live-cell imaging did not show any chemo-attractive or NETosis-inducing effect on PMNs treated with PTS. The time to maximum ROS production (TmaxROS) in PMNs was reduced by PTS and direct CAP treatment. PMNs directly treated with CAP showed an altered cell migration dependent on the treatment duration as well as decreased TmaxROS without inducing apoptosis. Additionally, flow cytometry showed enhanced integrin and selectin expression, as a marker of activation, on PMN surfaces. In conclusion, the modification of PMN immunoreactivity may be a main supporting mechanism for CAP-induced improvement in wound healing.



The microscope is equipped with a motorized adjustable stage, a Leica DFC9000 camera (Leica Microsystems, Wetzlar, Germany), a pE-4000 light source (CoolLED, SP10 5NY, Andover, England), and a stage top incubator (ibidi© GmbH, Martinsried, Germany) to ensure stable conditions at 37 °C and 5% CO2.

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The pE-4000 Universal Illumination System offers 16 selectable wavelengths from 365 - 770 nm, making it a highly flexible illuminator covering a wide variety of fluorophores

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