Yasufumi Hayano,1 Yugo Ishino,1,† Jung Ho Hyun,2,3,‡§ Carlos G. Orozco,1,4,§ André Steinecke,1,§ Elizabeth Potts,4 Yasuhiro Oisi,1 Connon I. Thomas,4 Debbie Guerrero-Given,4 Eunjoon Kim,5,6 Hyung-Bae Kwon,2,3,7 Naomi Kamasawa,4 and Hiroki Taniguchi1,*


1Development and Function of Inhibitory Neural Circuits, Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience, Jupiter, FL 33458, USA.
2Cellular Basis of Neural Circuit Plasticity, Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience, Jupiter, FL 33458, USA.
3Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.
4Electron Microscopy Facility, Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience, Jupiter, FL 33458, USA.
5Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, South Korea.
6Center for Synaptic Brain Dysfunctions, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon, South Korea.
7Max Planck Institute for Neurobiology, Martinsried, Munich 82152, Germany.
*Corresponding author. Email: [email protected]
†Present address: Division of Molecular Brain Science, Research Institute of Traditional Asian Medicine, Kindai University, 377-2, Ohno-Higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511, Japan.
‡Present address: Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Building E4, Daegu 42988, South Korea.
§These authors contributed equally to this work.




The most prominent structural hallmark of the mammalian neocortical circuitry is the layer-based organization of specific cell types and synaptic inputs. Accordingly, cortical inhibitory interneurons (INs), which shape local network activity, exhibit subtype-specific laminar specificity of synaptic outputs. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Immunoglobulin Superfamily member 11 (IgSF11) homophilic adhesion proteins are preferentially expressed in one of the most distinctive IN subtypes, namely, chandelier cells (ChCs) that specifically innervate axon initial segments of pyramidal neurons (PNs), and their synaptic laminar target. Loss-of-function experiments in either ChCs or postsynaptic cells revealed that IgSF11 is required for ChC synaptic development in the target layer. While overexpression of IgSF11 in ChCs enlarges ChC presynaptic boutons, expressing IgSF11 in nontarget layers induces ectopic ChC synapses. These findings provide evidence that synapse-promoting adhesion proteins, highly localized to synaptic partners, determine the layer-specific synaptic connectivity of the cortical IN subtype.



Under this condition, we monitored IPSC in the absence or presence of 470-nm wavelength of blue light stimulation through water-immersion 40× objective coupled to a light-emitting diode (pE-100, CoolLED) to activate adjacent ChR2-expressing ChCs.

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The compact, single-bandwidth pE-100 is ideal for visualising a single fluorophore - in this case tdT to identify dopaminergic neurons.

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